Long-lasting sameness is what brings it on. Williams seems to think that EM’s boredom (and consequent choice of death over life) is entirely understandable, proper, and fitting. L'A. Frankl hält die Psychoanalyse für überflüssig, weil das Unterbewußtsein die Antwort auf die Herausforderung zur Freiheit und zur Verantwortlichkeit heilen kann. 64-77. Russell moreover begins the tradition of distinguishing different kinds of boredom (unless we can regard Seneca as the initiator of the tradition). In order to understand the term “The Will to Meaning” better, we need a broader explanation. With Pascal, we are in the era of history termed “modernity” or “early modernity” or the “beginning of the modern world.” Pascal treats boredom with more depth, passion, and insight than any of his predecessors. EM had taken an elixir at age 42 which kept her at 42 and continued to do so every year she took it. Zur Formulierung des Begriffes „Wille zum Sinn“ muß gesagt werden, daß in der Philosophie, mit der Frankl konfrontiert wurde, es Mode war, ähnliche Begriffe zu bilden. . Indeed, he insists that boredom has become the pervasive and And some philosophers would think it obvious that the opposite of boredom is not excitement but interest. We keep constantly, than the previously analyzed one, for “the duration of boredom is not decisive, suddenly realize that I was awfully bored throughout the whole evening, of the verb: I was not occupied with the essential things that concern me in an. (Perhaps this is due to the great influence of Heidegger on continental thought, an influence largely absent in analytical circles.). “A happy life,” he says, “must be to a great extent a quiet life, for it is only in an atmosphere of quiet that true joy can live.”. And during their time off work, there are many things for them to do. “Boredom and Modern Culture,”, Millgram, E. 2004. -- Jeffrey Powell. Man is never sure whether his conscience errs or not or whether somebody else´s conscience sees things better and more objectively. He makes the same kind of point in The Antichrist: In Christianity the instincts of the subjugated and oppressed come to the fore: here the lowest classes seek their salvation. Wrestling with these three claims, wondering if they make sense and, if they do, what sense it is, would make a fit pastime for whiling away a slow slumbering evening. As for those who are content with something like mere everyday existence, they are the stupidest of people, not much, if any, above the level of the brutes. translated by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson, Being and Time (New York and Third, Nietzsche sometimes speaks positively of boredom. methodological principles and show how he applies these in describing three forms of boredom. First, boredom is part of the explanation of Christian, saintly, or ascetic ideals and practices. Kant believes that boredom plagues the person who is inactive and has nothing to do. To this end, I shall begin by examining some of the traditional theological and philosophical readings of fatigue and boredom (beginning with Jewish and Christian scripture), before turning specifically to Martin Heidegger and Giorgio Agamben, and finally to recent phenomenological accounts, drawing from them some suggestions for a possible theology of boredom and fatigue. idea of an indeterminate structure, more archaic than every personalization. to occupy oneself with practical matters, the management of public affairs, and the duties of a citizen. They began to be sick of life and the world itself, and [think]: “How long shall I endure the same things?”. Modern life is much less boring than it was for centuries in the agricultural past. A spiritual dimension for man can be hidden in it. Let thy garments be always white; and let thy head lack no ointment. And the "profound boredom" mentioned in facebook is what Heidegger thinks of as the fundamental mood (Grundstimmung) by which Dasein is ontologically disclosed or revealed to itself. Grundbegriffe der aristotelischen Philosophie. The substance of human existence is situated in self-transcendency; being a human means being faithful to some aims, too, being led and relying on somebody or something, how man is realized, how he develops and how he will show himself. It can lead to the death of the bored one; it can make him or her hang himself or herself. Evanston: Harper & Row, 1962). But, as things are, we can find no modicum of relief from our misery, except when we are diverted or distracted from our lives. He even claims that: All great books contain boring portions, and all great lives have contained uninteresting stretches. Williams’s conception of boredom is apparent from his language. present in the first forms of boredom is completely absent: the one gripped by, complete almightiness. Moreover, in contrast to Schopenhauer, Thoreau seems to think that it is those who are less intelligent, less mentally active, and more “asleep” who tend to suffer most from boredom. All are in the same case, both those, on the one hand, who are plagued with fickleness and boredom and a continual shifting of purpose, and those, on the other, who loll and yawn. This question was first asked by Kierkegaard and after him others developed it, e.g. Das hat das Erlebnis des Krieges, das Erlebnis der Degradierung des Menschen getan. But very few can even conceive of such a state, let alone achieve it. Russell observes that boredom is unpleasant and thus it is natural to want to get rid of it. So we come across one with Schopenhauer, who uses “The Will to Life” or with Nietzsche, where we read about “The Will to Power”. We pursue it and, if we are fortunate, capture it. The purpose of our project is to explore the phenomenon of violence in its structural genesis crossing the totality of its constitutive layers, in order to understand the articulated variations of this phenomenon and its possible concretizations. Finally, it seems clear that if any academic discipline has much to say concerning the metaphysical or ethical implications of boredom, it is more likely to be philosophy than any of the empirical sciences. The opposite of boredom is excitement. Boredom, he says, is an experience or sensation that “comes about whenever, from the relative emptiness of content of a tract of time, we grow attentive to the passage of the time itself.” When bored, you attend closely to the mere feeling of time per se. Faith has the most important influence. “Vanity of vanities, all is vanity.” “The eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear with hearing.” “All I labored to do was vanity and vexation of spirit.” “I hated life because all my work was grievous to me.” These are the sounds a seriously bored (and rather depressed) man makes. Life asks man with all its realities. Der Sinn des Lebens ist in Bezug auf das Ziel auch der – was die Zeit betrifft – daß das Individuum einen festen Punkt in der Zukunft braucht, auch was das Objekt betrifft. But in the essay, Williams makes several important points about boredom. That which has been is now; and that which is to be has already been. Frankl rejects Freud´s reductionism. There is the will, the striving, man´s effort for a meaningful existence. Neither want nor boredom is a particularly pleasant state to be in; in fact, both are forms of misery. Who in her right mind would want to remove such an illusion? EM’s boredom is connected with the fact that everything that could happen and make sense to one particular human being had already happened to her. transcendental phenomenology of time consciousness. Several philosophers claim that boredom has always plagued human beings, while others hold that it is peculiarly a malady of the modern world. One implication of this is that, in Williams’s view, boredom is a rather serious thing that can motivate, not suicide exactly, but the choice of death over life. Heidegger’s analysis of anxiety and boredom as what I call ‘revelatory moods’ hinges on an unsettling phenomenon that characterizes them: an in-ability to make sense of the world – something we have no doubt all been fa-miliar with to some degree lately. must underscore this impersonal nuance, as in es gibt, es ereignet, es weltet. The feeling of bare time is the least stimulating experience we can have, and stimulation is a necessary component for any pleasure we might find in, or get from, an experience. 13 Boredom is the only other mood to get extensive analysis by Heidegger, in the Grundbegriffe der Metaphysik lectures (GA 29/30; The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics: World, Finitude, Solitude. Das Leben fragt den Menschen in der Form der Wirklichkeiten. Der Sinn betrifft die Objektivität, die entdeckt werden soll. I will first concentrate on symmetrical violence, namely, on the emergence of irritation, annoyance, anger, and fury leading to fierce confrontation. Other important works are: Toohey’s Boredom: A Lively History; the Routledge Boredom Studies Reader: Frameworks and Perspectives, edited by M. E. Gardiner and J. J. Haladyn, a rich anthology by a diverse group of contributors exploring multiple issues, many of them philosophical, that the phenomenon of boredom raises; W. O’Brien’s “Boredom” in the 2014 volume of the journal Analysis; and several works on boredom by Andreas Elpidorou, probably the most prolific and certainly one of the most interesting of the writers on the subject at present. Even if the phenomenon of boredom does not appear explicitly in, indication of this problem, in a context that, anxiety. There is a deep-seated desire for excitement in human beings. „Wille zum Sinn“ meint das Bemühen darum, daß dieses Streben ein bewußter Teil der Antwort auf das Streben des Über-Sinnes ist. down exclusively on account of what fills our daily average life. (6) Heidegger’s main answer to these questions may be: Boredom prepares the mind for profound vision. Through approaching the phenomenon of boredom via Husserl and Heidegger, the basic discontinuity between Husserl's transcendental and Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology comes clearly to the fore. And all these tendencies are aggravated when men have taken refuge in solitary studies, which are unendurable to a mind that is intent upon public affairs, desirous of action, and naturally restless, because assuredly it has too few resources within itself. At the forefront of Dasein 's being is the notion that it is Etude de la troisieme etape du projet de radicalisation de l'ontologie fondamentale chez Heidegger, qui consiste en une metontologie de la totalite de l'etant. This is due to the uniqueness of the person and the singularity of the situation in which the person lives. The German etymology of boredom 1 makes apparent the link it has with time: “ Langeweile, the while [ Weile] becomes long [ lang ]” (Heidegger, 1929–30/1995, p. 152). To the modern reader, Serenus’s confessions do not sound like confessions of anything like boredom. Although we experience less boredom than our ancestors did, we are more afraid of boredom than they were. Different factors exert their influence on the extent of experienced meaning and existential frustration, facts which can be shown by our survey of different groups of the inhabitants of Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia. Da ist der Wille, das Streben, die Bemühung des Menschen um eine sinnvolle Existenz. (7) Heidegger has other answers to the questions raised above (about why one would want boredom and its insights). searching for various illusory preoccupations, in the second form of boredom. Life can become meaningful through work if this work isn´t done in an egocentric way but is done to achieve something meaningful for others. An excited person is no doubt interested in something, but a person whose interest is captured by something need not be excited by anything. . The odiousness of the experience of boredom arises from its insipidity. ive difference between human and animal on the animal. Although there are exceptions, “analytical” philosophers tend to side with Toohey on this matter while “continental” philosophers tend to side with Svendsen. Ein Geben des Sinnes würde zu einem Moralismus führen. Der Mensch ist fähig, einen Sinn nicht nur in der Gegenwart zu finden, sondern auch in dem, was er schon erlebte, oder auch in dem, was noch kommen wird. Why is it that men give so poor an account of their day if they have not been slumbering? He asks himself the existential question just like any human does. of boredom. Für die noogene Neurose hat Frankl einen medizinischen und auch existenzialen Blick und gibt sie in einen Zusammenhang mit den Charakteristiken der heutigen Zeit. of the hesitancy of a life which fails to find its way clear, and then the dullness of a soul that lies torpid amid abandoned hopes. At the time of the action in the play, EM has been 42 for 300 years, and she is bored to death. There is also one meaning to life which can be obtained by an experience which elevates man, leading him to a social orientation or even enabling him to experience love, which is the most precious experience. Deshalb ist es nötig, Toleranz zu pflegen und ein Bemühen um die Kultivierung des Gewissens anzustreben. We tend to think that boredom is not a part of a natural human life. Der Mensch hat niemals eine Sicherheit, ob sein eigenes Gewissen nicht irrt und ob das Gewissen des anderen die Dinge besser und objektiver sieht. Humans are prone to it in proportion to how smart they are. And so life may be viewed as a pendulum that passes back and forth between one bad state and another. One of these is the human being who is lost in the contemplation and enjoyment of art, especially music. Although Husserl himself broached the problem of the intentionality of moods, it was Heidegger who gave us a full-blown account of it. Finally, Schopenhauer stresses the seriousness of boredom more than any of his predecessors. Rather than isolate and explore a single theme or aspect of Heidegger, de Beistegui chooses multiple points of entry that unfold from the same question or idea. (2) The central concept of Heidegger’s philosophy is Dasein, literally, “being there”. The consensus among philosophers is that, while there may be something to this, it is a bit of an exaggeration. Eine geistliche Dimension kann darin für den Menschen versteckt sein. "... a real philosophical page-turner, a book that is difficult to put down, even given the complexity of its issues." In Frankl´s concept we can find the influence of the representatives of existentialism, especially of Scheler, whose book “Formalism in Ethics” Frankl always carried with him, of Jaspers, whose terms “The Borderline Situation” and “existential communication” he (Frankl) developed further, of Pascal, on whose transcendental dimension of man and his professions he based his findings, of Sartre and Camus, whose position concerning the absurdity of life and suicide he includes in the dialogue. Im tiefsten Grund von Frankls Denken kann man die Philosophie des Aristoteles sehen, dessen Aussterben des Menschen mit dem Prinzip der Entelechie geführt ist und die mit ihr in Zusammenhang gekommene Lehre des Thomas von Aquin, und zwar direkt, wenn er über die ewige Freude und das Ziel des Menschen redet, oder indirekt in der Form des neothomistischen integralen Humanismus von Maritain. . Heidegger uses the same Life at home in the evenings was as dull as could be. With World War Two this question became a burning issue, which Frankl spread, radicalising it extremely. She refuses this time to take the elixir, and she dies. Everything in human life has a deeper meaning. It is possible to see a task or a meaning in life in any situation. The extent to which O’Brien’s analysis is satisfactory remains to be seen. disposition of boredom, with the threefold. emptiness pertaining to this form of boredom. Heidegger's claim earlier in Division 1 of Being and Time (discussed in blog 3), is that the human being finds itself in a world that is richly meaningful and with which it is fascinated. The German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) discusses boredom at length in his 1929-30 lecture series The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics. His general claim here is that a propensity to be bored is a sign of intelligence. For Heidegger, boredom is a privileged fundamental mood because it leads us directly into the very problem complex of being and time. True, factory workers’ jobs are repetitive and sometimes tedious. [T]heir mind becomes incensed against Fortune, and complains of the times, and retreats into corners and broods over its trouble until it becomes weary and sick of itself. First, James tells us what boredom is and the conditions under which it arises. There is also the fact, emphasized by Lars Svendsen, that most people have difficulty saying whether they are bored or not, both at the moment and in general throughout their lives—a fact that points to obvious limitations of statistical studies that begin from survey questions about, say, whether people tend to be bored and what bores them, and issue in claims about boredom’s prevalence, objects, typical conditions, cures, and so forth. Heidegger identifies boredom as the fundamental mood for philosophising in virtue of its privileged relationship with time. It seems clear that what he is really recommending is a life that looks boring from the outside, and would be boring to one who needed a lot of stimulation and excitement to be happy, not a life that is boring to the one living it. Das rührt her von der Einzigartigkeit der Person und der Einmaligkeit der Situation, in der sich der Mensch befindet. Russell’s distinction is rather odd. Boredom is the natural state of the human being left to his or her own devices. So, God creates woman. We get three things: first, a rather compelling phenomenological account of what the state is like; second, an indication that it can lead to states worse than itself (for example, melancholy, jealousy, and envy); and, third, some advice about how to eliminate or at least ameliorate the condition, namely, through work and immersion in practical affairs. Acedia, the “disease that wasteth at noonday” or the demon responsible for the infliction of the disease, was a form of pre-boredom or boredom with sloth that afflicted innumerable practitioners—priests, monks, hermits, and the like—of the religious life in the Christian middle ages. There was no electricity; there were no books, music, or movies; there wasn’t much of anything to do except hunt occasionally for witches. “Boredom,” he says, “is essentially a thwarted desire for events.” And besides this thwarted desire, there are two additional essentials of boredom. Russell isn’t opposed to the pursuit of excitement altogether. As for the formulation of the term “The Will to Meaning” it must be said that in the philosophy which Frankl was confronted with it was en vogue to formulate similar terms. Heidegger identifies boredom as the fundamental mood for philosophising in virtue of its privileged relationship with time. In its surroundings there are always a thousand things that are fascinating and sublime. (Let us remember that Heidegger’s goal is to, concretization and modification in each form of, inauthentic to the authentic one. What is the ontological structure of an animal being? But before it is passed over altogether, it should be noted that there was an ethical overtone to acedia/boredom. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. But we can say the following things with some confidence. Welcome to it is every opportunity for excitement and distraction. Toohey, in contrast, denies that there is any such state, arguing that what has been misidentified as such is actually a particular form of depression. Work on it by philosophers (and others) is thriving. Thinking with Heidegger proposes fresh answers to some of philosophy's most fundamental questions and extends Heideggerian discourse into philosophical regions not treated by Heidegger himself. . At the same time it is transsubjective because it does not concern subjectivity or a private and personal outlook on life. Der Begriff „Wille zum Sinn“ ist bei Frankl ein Schlüsselbegriff. constitutes the first pre-eminence of generic affectivity in Heidegger’s existential analytic. Heidegger M., Sein und Zeit (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1986), hereafter cited as SZ; The first parameter concerns the manner of appearance of, world, one that has an only ontical status: that truck that, everywhere, manifests its power in relation to the worldhood of the world and, to being in the world as such. Faith in meaning depends deeply on the substance of human existence. Fourth, for Kierkegaard, boredom is a sort of status symbol. Those on the Toohey side of the disagreement just mentioned are likely to accept something like it. Man´s answer is his willingness to accept responsibility. Nous analyserons alors les présupposés du primat de la mort propre sur la mort d’autrui, en soulignant ce qui empêche cette dernière de recevoir une signification ontologique. Gleichzeitig ist er (der Sinn) auch transsubjektiv, weil er nicht die Sache der Subjektivität, der privaten und persönlichen Weltanschauung ist. On the one hand there is fickleness and restlessness, and on the other a lack of motivation and interest, a weariness that expresses itself in lolling and yawning. Temporality is a process with three dimensions which form a unity. So what do we get from Seneca that will help us in our attempts to understand boredom? Does the animal constitute the world and the objects within the world in the same way as humans do? Finally, the forth conceptual parameter refers to. “Boredom and the Divided Mind,”. And yet there does seem to be a moral Qoheleth draws. The American Transcendentalist philosopher Henry David Thoreau (1817-1865) does not write about boredom as such at any length. anxiety is the mark of authenticity as such. Thoreau’s point about boredom is that it is the state of one of limited mental capacities, or of one “asleep”. The duality specific to, inauthenticity and authenticity, and offer a manner to ‘transport’ the existence, preoccupied with the environmental entity. First, there is his claim that boredom is one of the twin poles of human life. So zeigt die Logotherapie dem Menschen, daß er – obwohl das ein Widerspruch zu sein scheint – inmitten des Leidens Erfüllung und Glück findet, und zwar ähnlich dem, wie es die biblischen Seligpreisungen ausdrücken. Die Symptome dieser Neurose sieht er in den Positionen des Fatalismus, des Fanatismus, des Kollektivismus und des provisorischen Wesens. We begin to feel uneasy and will desperately search for any distraction. Svendsen writes: By awakening the mood of boredom Heidegger believes we will be in a position to gain access to time and the meaning of being. He maintains that it fails to see the spiritual nature of man and his ability to decide of his own free will, that it reduces the conscience of man to the superego. This faith is independent of religious faith, although there is a connection between the two. The prominent English moral philosopher Williams Bernard ‘s (1929- 2003) famous essay, “The Makropulos Case: Reflections on the Tedium of Immortality,” is not about the nature of boredom as such. Based on the Cartesian criticism of the oversimplified dualist approach of neuroscience, the paper delves into the phenomenological approach to the phenomenon of boredom, as could be only indirectly surmised from Husserl's (basically Cartesian), This essay follows two impulses: Jean-Yves Lacoste’s suggestion that philosophy and theology should speak about boredom and about fatigue, just as they do about anguish or joy, and the Swiss theologian Karl Barth’s contention that theological anthropology and philosophy of religion are incoherent without them. A mood is neither internal or external; a mood goes beyond such a distinction and is a basic characteristics of being-in-the-world. The next chapter deals with Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology as implicated in his compelling and as of yet unsurpassed analysis of the phenomenon of boredom. Frankl lehnt den Reduktionismus von Freud ab, es reicht ihm nicht, die Erfüllung des Menschenlebens bei Adler zugunsten der Gemeinschaft, und er ist nicht zufrieden mit der Ansicht von Jung, daß sich der Mensch einen Sinn gibt, sich selber beeinflußt mit den Archetypen, und zwar „des Weises“, „des Sinnes“ oder des „Selbst“. It is by way of a mood that we relate to our surroundings. Wendell O’Brien die Sexualität oder die Freiheit betrifft. It seems wrong to consider a person who is interested in something (for example, the crossword puzzle she is quietly working) as bored just because at the moment there is nothing in her that is exactly excitement. Here is his view. Boredom, and we ourselves, are asleep in our everyday pastimes in our actual life. The balance of suicides committed because of missing solutions of life situations leads to fallacy. This strikes Kierkegaard as something of a paradox. The overtone was negative. All these, as various. Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE), the Roman Stoic philosopher, talks about boredom or tedium in his essay, “On Tranquillity,” addressed to his friend “Serenus”, who always seems to need a lot of advice. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology: Vol. time measured by clocks, partaking to a certain extent in the common concept, iii) The third form: it is boring for one, Metaphysik?”, “profound boredom, that enters as a. everywhere and nowhere, invading everything, without any detectable reason. There are times when we ought to be bored, and not being so represents some kind of ethical, intellectual, or human failure. This is not because I fear having … Der Begriff „Wille zum Sinn“ und das ganze Konzept der existentialen Frustration erfordert aus der Sicht seines philosophischen Hintergrundes eine tiefere und deutlichere Erklärung. There is nothing new under the sun. ity, and temporality. When, therefore, the pleasures have been withdrawn which business itself affords to those who are busily engaged, the mind cannot endure home, solitude, and the walls of a room, and sees with dislike that it has been left to itself.From this comes that boredom, dissatisfaction, the vacillation of a mind that nowhere finds rest, and the sad and languid endurance of one’s leisure. So he invents man. Pascal’s description of the bored and weary person is apt and insightful. Finally, an amusing remark of Nietzsche’s in his late Twilight of the Idols—which, unfortunately may have some truth in it—is worth quoting: “What is the task of all higher education?” To turn men into machines. An intelligent and alert mind is never bored. Da ist das Bemühen, zu sehen, zu organisieren und zu erklären, einzelne Impulse wie sinnvolle Ganzheiten, und dieser Wille betrifft dabei nicht nur das, was ist, sondern auch das, was noch sein kann. One motive for the fulfilment of meaning is the counterbalance to the tension between what man is and what man would like to be, the tension between reality and ideals, between existence and essence, between being and meaning. It is a form of misery, and a real scourge on the human race. He calls it “demonic pantheism”—demonic, because it is that which is empty, pantheism because it is all-pervasive. Therefore it is necessary to cultivate tolerance as well as to attempt to cultivate one´s own conscience. Those holding the latter view do generally admit, however, that there were pre-modern precursors of boredom. . McNeil & Nicholas Walker: The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics: World, Finitude, In conventional usage, boredom is an emotional and occasionally psychological state experienced when an individual is left without anything in particular to do, is not interested in their surroundings, or feels that a day or period is dull or tedious. (3) Fundamental moods or “attunements” figure prominently in Heidegger’s thought. This meaning is singular and cannot be repeated. In everyday German language the word “Dasein” means “life” or “existence.” Dasein, that being which we ourselves are, is distinguished from all other beings by the fact that it makes an issue of its own being. The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) nowhere gives an extended treatment of boredom as such, but he does speak of it here and there throughout his writings, and much of what he says about it is thought-provoking. Beim Vergleichen der Gruppe jener, die einen geistlichen Beruf ausüben mit der Gruppe der auf anderen Gebieten Tätigen wurde auch kein Unterschied festgestellt, was im Zusammenhang damit sehr interessant ist, daß jene, die einen geistlichen Beruf ausüben, nicht in der Gemeinschaft einer Familie leben und nicht alle Triebe erfüllt haben, was z.B. Bearing something that cannot be delegated is an experience, too. For the quiet life is one of true joy. Williams explores the issue by reference to his test case, a woman called “EM” in a play Williams uses as a springboard for his reflections. Dieser Sinn gibt dann dem Menschen die Stärke, auch in den schweren Situationen des Lebens durchzuhalten. The American Pragmatist philosopher and psychologist William James (1842-1910) has a couple of interesting things to say about boredom in “The Perception of Time,” Chapter XV of his massive Principles of Psychology (1890). But boredom is not all bad. This paper argues that Heidegger's phenomenology of boredom in The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics: World, Finitude, Solitude (1983) could be a promising addition to the ‘toolbox’ of scientists investigating conscious experience. Animals, he speculates, feel very little boredom. All rights reserved. This meaning concerns the objectivity that has to be discovered. in its ontological condition of possibility. Most of what we get from Pascal are observations of human nature, or of people in general. Man has some awareness of meaning, an idea of it or faith in meaning.