fuelwood in Florida—a summary report. The Eucalypts. of southern and eastern Africa. However, the impacts on soil quality of different restoration types rarely have been compared systematically. Eucalyptus robusta Sm., Bot. In summary, E. robusta provides a moderately durable hardwood with an air-dry density of 805-900 kg/m³ for wood from natural stands in Australia and 725-800 kg/m³ for plantation timber in Hawaii (Keating and Bolza, 1982). However, hybrid breakdown (e.g. bivalva (Blakely) Blakely, Key Eucalypts, ed. Native to Southeastern Australia. Ruskin FR, 1983. ; 13 ref. 24. ... Eucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany) Eucalyptus rudis. Allelophatic interactions are an important factor in determining species distribution and abundance within plant communities (Kristina et al., 2006). Journal of Essential Oil Research, 22(6):510-513. http://www.jeoronline.com/. ; [ACIAR Monograph No. E. robusta is one of the Eucalyptus species most widely planted around the world. The rainbow eucalyptus grows in lowland and lower montane rainforest from sea level to altitudes of up to 1,800 m (5,900 ft). APNI* Description: Tree to 40 m high; bark smooth, white or grey, shedding in large plates or flakes. Performance of twelve selected Australian tree species on a saline site in southeast Queensland. Aradhya KM, Phillips VD, 1993. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp. Wellington, N.Z. Pers. Vol. rostrata (Cav.) Range Exp. Misc. In 1995 it was estimated that Eucalyptus plantations amounted about 14.6 million ha worldwide (PROTA, 2014). Native to Southeastern Australia. Tissue culture of Eucalyptus. Eucalyptus robusta var. South African Forestry Journal, No. 36(4):381–388. Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry. The species is widely adaptable and has been introduced into many tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate climates including Puerto Rico, southern Florida, coastal California, and Hawaii. U.S. For. 175 refs. It occurs from coastal to mountainous locations and can reach a height of up to 50m under ideal conditions (Picture 1). Delaware. Bees foraging on the nectar of E. robusta flowers produce dark amber, highly aromatic honey of acceptable flavour (Clemson, 1985). ex Maiden, E. citriodora Hook., E. raveretiana F. : Isolation and identification of robustaol B and other constituents / Qin Guo-Wei, Xu Ren-Sheng / Acta Chimica Sinica, Volume 4, Issue 1, pages 62–67, March 1986 / DOI: 10.1002/cjoc.19860040110 (4) In Puerto Rico, E. robusta is susceptible to gummosis and trunk rots caused by Polyporus schweinitzii [Phaeolus schweinitzii] and Fomes spp. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/. Seed dispersal is largely by wind and may begin within 6 weeks after the capsule ripens. Equal diversity in disparate species assemblages: a comparison of native and exotic woodlands in California. MacMillan, H.F. 1925. xv + 472 pp. New York, USA; Wiley Interscience. Sta. and London. Niche analysis and tree species introduction. 102. Eucalyptus genetic improvement in Madagascar. A disjunct population occurs just north of Yeppoon in coastal, central Queensland.E. Phellopsylla formicosa ( Froggatt, 1900 ) Distribution: Australia : introduced into New Zealand : AK ( AMNZ ). Pacif. In: Recovery Outline for the Kauai Ecosystem. Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014), US Fish and Wildlife Service, Distribution Eucalyptus robusta information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands Information about Eucalyptus robusta in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.. Eucalyptus robusta information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands Information about Eucalyptus robusta--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution … McClain Printing Co., Parsons, WV. This species occurs in swamps and alongside estuaries in a narrow coastal strip, usually within a few kilometres of the ocean, from Rockhampton, Queensland south to Jervis Bay, New South Wales. Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data. GeneralE. Pulpwood is the major use of E. robusta in Florida (Durst, 1988). ; 63 pl. Eucalyptus species have proven with their allopathic. The capsules are subglobular to more or less hemispherical, 5-21 mm long x 6-25 mm wide, glaucous or not, weakly 4 … Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer, 247-265. Most commonly planted reforestation species in the state. Little EL Jr, Wadsworth FH, 1964. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Jacobs MR, 1981. Res. By the 1990s, about 1.8 million ha of Eucalyptus species were planted in Africa, and in Madagascar about 151,000 ha of E. robusta were established (PROTA, 2014). robusta is a medium to large tree with a dense crown and long, spreading branches when grown in open ground. Flora of New South Wales Vol. Eucalyptus robusta / Wikipedia (2) Eucalyptus robusta / AgroForestryTree Database (3) Studies on the chemical constituents of Eucalyptus robusta Sm. 1986, Ed. No. Hillis WE, Brown AG, 1984. Distribution: Eastern Australia. The inflorescence is axillary, 9-15 flowered, the peduncles are strongly flattened, up to 3 cm in length; buds with prominent stalks (pedicels) to 0.9 cm in length, rarely sessile, to 2.4 × 0.8 cm, scar present, operculum long, beaked; flowers white. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br, Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Newly exposed bark is very smooth and has a glossy surface, whereas older bark becomes finely rough and granular in texture. 3. flower bud Estrada KRFS, Bellei MM, Silva EAMda, 1993. Compendium record. Timber trees: major commercial timbers. World Checklist of Myrtaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Shepherd KR, 1986. In Sao Paulo, Brazil, E. robusta has been attacked by the bacterium Phytomonas tumifaciens [Rhizobium radiobacter] (National Academy of Science, 1983). ... though several other species within the Eucalyptus genus have been reported to cause various allergic reactions. Species Eucalyptus rigens Brooker & Hopper – eucalyptus P: Species Eucalyptus rigidula Maiden P: Species Eucalyptus risdonii Hook. Most of these are in Brazil and South Africa, but there also large plantation areas in Argentina, Australia, India, Uruguay, Zambia and other countries (Eldridge et al . Login to download data. 1971. pp. However, the high humidity causes shrinkage and expansion which makes it unsuitable for furniture construction in most areas (Skolmen 1971, 1974). Skolmen RG, 1963. ... though several other species within the Eucalyptus genus have been reported to cause various allergic reactions. Host plants: Eucalyptus saligna ( Myrtaceae ). These monoculture plantations generate loss of plant diversity by shading, soil exposure, erosion, allelopathic activity and important changes in water infiltration and modifications in waterways, wetlands and swamps. Curtis, C.R. Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. The fruits have valves that are usually joined across the orifice, in comparison other species which have free valves.Griffin et al. N.A.S. Uppsala, Sweden: International Rural Development Centre, University of Agricultural Sciences, 45-58. Forests, Trees and People Newsletter, No. double recessive, or other unwanted phenotypes) occurs rapidly in generations after the F1 stage (Geary et al., 1983).Reproductive Biology. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Changes in quality indicators of hillside soils reforested with pines (Pinus caribaea) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta). Times of Ceylon In Australia, it is used in general construction and for underground pilings, utility poles and fence posts. 1993). It is highly tolerant to seasonal waterlogging. Biomass production by fast-growing trees. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, commonly known as the river red gum, is a tree that is endemic to Australia.It has smooth white or cream-coloured bark, lance-shaped or curved adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven or nine, white flowers and hemispherical fruit with the valves extending beyond the rim. Pap. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11(1):49-57. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. Industrial application of micropropagation. Melbourne, Australia:Thomas Nelson and CSIRO. Little, E.L. Jr. 1983. 2010a, Pritchardia hardyi (Makaleha pritchardia), US Fish and Wildlife Service, Juvenile leaves disjunct, broad-lanceolate, dull grey-green. Forest Ecology and Management, 70(1-3):255-264; 33 ref. Dvorak WS, 1981. Computer index 2.1. are prized for their fragrance, foliage and wood, but the species range widely in size, shape and distribution. Flora of Australia, 19. and Eurymeloides sp. Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. Eucalyptus marginata was first formally described in 1802 by James Edward Smith, whose description was published in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London.Smith noted that his specimens had grown from seeds brought from Port Jackson and noted a resemblance to both Eucalyptus robusta and E. pilularis. Australian Journal of Botany, 36(1):41-66. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that provides immediate access to the wealth of plant specimen information held by Australian herbaria. It exerts allopathic effects through auto toxicity, its leaf, stem& root extracts /leachates reduce seed Chemical composition of five essential oils of Eucalyptus species from Mali: E. houseana F.V. Wilcox MD, 1997. The flowering period is May-July in Australia (Brooker and Kleinig, 1994), September-November in Florida (Geary et al., 1983), January-March in California (King and Krugman, 1980) or at any time of the year in tropical areas such as Hawaii and Puerto Rico (Little and Wadsworth, 1964). http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/, I3N-Brasil, 2014. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Sydney, Australia: Inkata Press. Buck MG, Imoto RH, 1982. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, PROTA, 2014. Mature trees of E. robusta are remarkably tolerant of frost, especially given that frosts are uncommon in the species' natural range. BOSTID Report No. Introduced to Hawaii around 1900. 322pp. No. (1977). (1977).E. Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Benefits from human association (i.e. Skolmen RG, 1974. Common fuelwood crops: a handbook for their The species Eucalyptus tereticornis did not statistically differ from Eucalyptus robusta, but the latter presented difference in relation to Hovenia dulcis. Sta. Eucalyptus robusta swampmahogany This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. The tendency of older trees to shed large limbs in strong winds makes it an undesirable selection for areas affected by typhoons (Jacobs, 1981). Between 1930 and 1960 about 2.3 million trees were planted in Hawaii and by 1960 more than 4650 ha (11,500 acres) of plantations were established in Hawaii (Little and Skolmen, 2003). iii. Linn. Eucalyptus robusta JE. Since 1890, significant areas of E. robusta have been planted in Madagascar, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka and Hawaii (Jacobs, 1981). Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). Robusta Eucalyptus wood: its properties and uses. A large amount of vegetation restoration has been implemented since the early 21st century in degraded karst areas across southwestern China. It is often used as a timber tree, shade tree, ornamental tree, in shelter belts as a windbreak tree and in water catchment rehabilitation. Sydney, Australia: Inkata Press. Smith. Forest Ecology and Management, 23(1):47-59; 29 ref. Puerto Rican woods. ( Myrtaceae ). Little Jr EL, Skolmen RG, 2003. Washington DC, USA: National Academy Press. f. – Risdon peppermint gum P: Species Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely – narrow-leaf peppermint gum P: Species Eucalyptus robusta Sm. The common name of swamp mahogany comes from its preferred habitat of swamps, and its timber's likeness to that of West Indies mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Tropical gardening and planting. Pryor (1976) lists E. robusta as one of the eucalypt species most commonly planted outside Australia. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, CABI, Undated. (syn. Ramamonjisoa L, 1994. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh Muell., E. robusta Smith and E. urophylla S.T. Definitions of eucalyptus robusta, synonyms, antonyms, ... Distribution and habitat. Turnbull JW, Doran JC, 1987. xvi + 687 pp. Durst PB, 1988. Adult leaves disjunct, narrow-lanceolate or lanceolate, 10–20 cm long, 1–3 cm wide, green, dull, concolorous. Similar to other eucalypts, E. robusta does not develop resting buds and grows whenever conditions are favourable (Jacobs, 1955). 40. I3N-Brasil, 2014. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. E. robusta is a very adaptable species, and has been established successfully over a remarkable range of environments from equatorial regions to an approximate latitude 35ºS (Penfold and Willis, 1961; Streets, 1962; Pryor, 1976; Fenton et al., 1977; Poynton, 1979; Jacobs, 1981; Turnbull and Pryor, 1984; Durst, 1988). Li Youpu. Perry, L.M. Eucalyptus grandis E. grandis is probably most widely planted eucalypt for industrial wood production, with an estimated plantation area of about 2 million ha in 1987 (Burgess 1988). Sta, No. Report to the Southern African Regional Commission for the Conservation and Utilization of the Soil (SARCCUS) on tree planting in southern Africa. Range Exp. Forest Products Journal, 46(10):57-60. and Chrysophtharta sp. Griffin AR, 1989. Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, eds. Breeding strategty for Eucalyptus robusta in southern Florida. USDA-ARS, 2014. Botany, cultivation, chemistry, and utilization. forests, in Vicosa, Minas Gerais. Only five species occur exclusively outside of Australia.E. Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Little EL Jr, 1983. E. camaldulensis plantation yields in the drier tropics are often about 5-10 m³ ha-¹ yr-¹ on 10-20 year rotations, whereas in moister regions, volumes up … Eucalypt domestication and breeding. Growing exotic forests. Oxford, UK: Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford. swamp mahogany šaltinis Valstybinės lietuvių kalbos komisijos… 2nd ed. Univ. Eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus spp.) 3. Online Database. Common fuelwood crops. 2. Soils are typically heavy clays, but also light sandy clays (Marcar et al., 1995). Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press. A gardener's guide to eucalypts. of ref. It is moderately salt-tolerant. Forest trees of Australia. Therefore, the probability of this species colonizing new habitats or being intentionally introduced into new habitats remains high. PIER, 2014. The trunk is usually straight and extends to about one half the height of the tree, or to two thirds of the tree height in dense stands on favourable sites. ... Eucalyptus robusta var. Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora (National database of exotic invasive species). This can be avoided if the timber is air-dried to less than 30% moisture content before kiln-seasoning (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Soc. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Research Paper, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. PSW-8, 30 pp. Econ. Northern Australia. 2:xxiv + 677 pp. nov. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71: 466-470. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture., ix + 374 pp. E. robusta is also close to E. pellita and E. resinifera, particularly in the bark characters, but the distribution of the latter two species is more widespread, occurring at higher altitude and well-drained sites. CABI is a registered EU trademark. it is a human commensal). Comparison of Eucalyptus grandis provenances and seed orchards in a frost frequent environment. Washington DC, US; Department of Agriculture. Swamp Mahogany Eucalyptus robusta. E. rotunda occurs naturally in the warm humid climate zone, ranging from regions with rare winter frosts and a summer maximum, to a uniform distribution of rainfall throughout the year (Boland et al., 1984). ), autumn gum moth, leaf beetle (Paropsis sp. robusta is commonly used for fuelwood in many parts of the world. 8 refs. It may split and distort during seasoning and is not stable in fluctuating atmospheric conditions. The logs are prone to sap-stain and pinhole borer attack, yet are moderately resistant to termite attack (Keating and Bolza, 1982; Webb et al., 1984). In the USA, E. robusta is used to produce rotary cut construction grade veneer. Eucalyptus robusta, commonly known as swamp mahogany or swamp messmate, is a tree native to eastern Australia.Growing in swampy or waterlogged soils, it is up to 30 m (98 ft) high with thick spongy reddish brown bark and dark green broad leaves, which help form a dense canopy.The white to cream flowers appear in autumn and winter. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. Eucalyptus robusta and E. grandis: provenance trials and tree improvement strategies in Madagascar. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br. Field trials indicate that this hybrid significantly outperforms both parent species in height, volume, cold tolerance, and coppicing ability, but the hybrids tend to be slightly less straight than E. grandis. This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. Leonard Hill [Books] Limited, London; Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York. Description and pathogenicity of Cylindrocladium ovatum sp. In: Hillis WE, Brown AG, eds. It is widely planted as a timber tree, and is considered to be invasive in Hawaiʻi and Réunion, and has become naturalised in Florida. Eucalyptus robusta usually occurs in swampy sites. James R King and Roger G. Skolmen. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. [US Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration, Technical Assistance Project.]. These monospecific plantations have resulted in the conversion of open ecosystems into forest ecosystems and in the loss of native biodiversity by shading, soil exposure and erosion, allelopathic activity and important modifications in water infiltration and nutrient regimes (Sax, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; I3N-Brazil, 2014). Webb DB, Wood PJ, Smith JP, Henman GS, 1984. Information about Eucalyptus robusta diagnosis, including distribution and treatment advice Cookies on Plantwise Knowledge Bank Like most websites we use cookies. 189-191. ; 24 pl. Honey and pollen flora. Moran GF, 1992. Eucalyptus species have hermaphrodite, protandrous flowers and are primarily pollinated by insects and birds (Griffin, 1989). ; 36 pl. APNI* Description: Tree to 50 m high; bark smooth, white or grey, shedding in large plates or flakes. Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. bivalva Eucalyptus robusta Smith, var. Save map. 3. Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops. Nelson RE, Wong WHC, Jr, Wick HL, 1968. PROTA, 2014. value 700 mm). Carlowitz PG von, 1986. Eucalyptus seeana Maiden APNI* . eucalyptus: From the Greek eu ‘good or well’ and calypha ‘covered’, alluding to the calyx which covers the flower like a lid. Wellington, New Zealand: External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Traoré N, Sidibé L, Figuérédo G, Chalchat JC, 2010. Institute of Energy Conversion. 249. xii + 191 pp. Hardy range 8b-11. Sax DF, 2002. Shrub and tree species for energy production. Genus: Eucalyptus L'Hér. 3rd ed. Brooker MIH, Kleinig DA, 1983. 24 refs. novus (see review in Fenton et al., 1977; El-Gholl et al., 1993). of ref. Dvorak WS, Franklin EC, Meskimen G, 1981. Evans J, 1982. having an approximate life in the ground of 8-25 years. Eucalyptus Cinerea vs. Eucalyptus Polyanthemos. (1984), and Holliday and Watton (1989).Foliage Bertrand A, 1992. Juvenile leaves disjunct, broad-lanceolate to ovate, dull blue-green or green. Govaerts R, 2014. tropical and sub-tropical plantations. Plantations of E. robusta have resulted in the conversion of open ecosystems into forest ecosystems. Shrub and tree species for energy production. The eucalypts. On the offshore islands of south-east Queensland, such as Fraser Island, it is found on almost pure sands (Boland et al., 1984). This tall Eucalyptus tree has a wide distribution range along Australia's east coast. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. In: Flora of Australia. These tend to replace E. robusta on sites with very high water tables. Research Paper, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. Adult leaves are petiolate, leathery, discolorous, glossy and dark green above, pale green below, broad-lanceolate, up to 17 × 4.5 cm.Inflorescences, flowers and fruits The juvenile foliage is attacked by leaf-blister sawfly (Phylacteophaga froggatti) and autumn gum moth (Mnesampela privata) while adult foliage is susceptible to lerp (Cardiaspina sp. The specific epithet (marginata) is a Latin word meaning "furnished with a border". Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. It generally grows on heavy clay soils, but is also found on sandy clay and alluvial sand soils. They reproduce by a mixed mating system, with both outcrossing and selfing occurring (Moran, 1992). Distribution: Eastern Australia. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. ; 72 ref. Germination of Australian native plant seed., 46-57, 186-198; 57 ref. 15. Agriculture Handbook. MIT Press, Eucalyptus robusta is a tree normally attaining heights of 25-30 m and diameters of 1-1.2 m (giant specimens as tall as 55 m and with a trunk of 25 m are found in Hawaii); ... DOCUMENTED SPECIES DISTRIBUTION The map above shows countries where the species has been planted. E. robusta forms pure stands or may be associated with other eucalypts such as E. resinifera, E. gummifera (syn. Scientific Name: Eucalyptus robusta. Welcome to the India Biodiversity Portal - A repository of information designed to harness and disseminate collective intelligence on the biodiversity of the Indian subcontinent. Qualitative evaluation of E. multiflora), robusta eucalyptus, swamp mahogany, swamp messmate, beakpod eucalyptus Family Myrtaceae. ; [B]. In: Santalum freycinetianum var. Eucalyptus robusta belongs in Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus section Latoangulatae because cotyledons are bilobed, leaves are discolorous and have side-veins at a wide angle to the midrib and buds have two opercula. In Australia, E. robusta is moderately to highly susceptible to insect attack (Marcar et al., 1995). Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. xx + 551. 67, 1962. pp. The only other consistently rough-barked species in this group is E. botryoides, which prefers similar coastal but less wet habitats (Boland et al., 1984). LeBarron RK, 1962. Germination of Australian native plant seed. Online Database. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm. Occurs in a very narrow coastal belt from north of Rockhampton in Queensland to Jervis Bay in New South Wales. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. 4th ed. In the past, the fungus Cylindrocladium scoparium [Calonectria kyotensis] has caused serious seedling losses in Florida (Durst, 1988), but is now controlled by soil sterilization and sprays. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. identification. E. robusta is a medium to large tree and is capable of rapid early growth in suitable environments. Contudo, o nome está relacionado à estrutura protetora dos estames, conforme consta no site do Departamento de (col.); 146 ref. The resulting monocultures have raised concerns about loss of animal biological diversity, through loss of acorns that mammals and birds feed on, absence of hollows that in oak trees provide shelter and nesting sites for birds and small mammals and for bee colonies, as well as lack of downed trees in managed plantations (Sax, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; I3N-Brazil, 2014). PSW-10 pp. Marcar NE, 1993. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Keating WG, Bolza E, 1982. Marcar NE, Crawford DF, Leppert PL, Jovanovic T, Floyd R, Farrow R, 1995. Schubert TH, Whitesell CD, 1985. E. robusta is one of the most widely planted Eucalyptus species, and it has been introduced into many tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate areas, including many countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, America and the West Indies (see distribution table for details). The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Termite resistance of wood species grown in Hawaii. New Forests, 6:49-66. pp. Firewood crops. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org ( Hollis 2004 ). It regularly attains heights of 20-30 m, with a d.b.h. Distribution and habitat. xx + 508pp. Adult leaves disjunct, narrow-lanceolate, 10–18 cm long, 1–2 cm wide, green, dull, concolorous. ; [B]. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. In: World Agroforestry Centre, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, PIER, 2014. Special areas in Hawaii: Wahiawa, Aiea, Kalopa, Tantalus, Pepeekeo. It … Doran JC, Turnbull JW, 1997. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. London: Edward Arnold Ltd. 1976, v + 82 pp. Patterns of genetic diversity in Australian tree species. Plantation sylviculture. Skolmen RG, 1971. Growth of 11 introduced tree species on selected forest sites in Hawaii. xxi + 362 pp. 1977. Griffin AR, Burgess IP, Wolf L, 1988. Robusta eucalyptus, Eucalyptus robusta, is native to a narrow coastal area in southeastern Australia. Durst (1988) gives the lower limit of tolerance as -11°C. Agricultural Handbook, No. 2010b, Santalum haleakalae var. 1980. atitikmenys: lot. Patterns of natural and manipulated hybridisation in the genus Eucalyptus L'Herit. There are presently 789 recognized species of eucalypt, together with a further 123 subspecies or varieties, giving a total of 912 eucalypt taxa (Wilcox, 1997). This species has been planted extensively for these purposes in the USA (Hawaii, Florida and California), throughout the Caribbean and in several African countries. Refresh the page in your browser to view updated content. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service. 1947. It is not favoured for general building purposes because of degradation during drying (Bootle, 1983), or for steam-bending (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Marked by deeply furrowed dark gray-brown bark, eucalyptus robusta grows well in Halawa. Hartney VJ, 1982. Susceptibility of E. robusta to root rot has also been reported (see review in Fenton et al., 1977). This species has a broad environmental amplitude, and is planted widely outside of Australia in equatorial to cool temperate regions.
2020 eucalyptus robusta distribution