See . The challenge to the materials technical team is to generate a cost-neutral 50 percent vehicle weight reduction. Safety: Issues related to hydrogen storage (see Recommendations 2-2 and 3-10). subsystem have yet to become a serious focus partly because of the continuing evolution of the technology (i.e., capital funding for fixed assets is not prudent when the technology may still change). The combination of simple subsystems and modules results in a vehicle model with a minimum number of data and a very good run time performance. The engine is the vehicle’s main source of power. At this time it is difficult to predict which type of vehicle (e.g., internal combustion engine vehicle, HEV, PHEV, HFCV, or BEV) will dominate the market in future years. There are also differences in the inherent characteristics among the chemistries. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. The DOE was correct in providing $9.5 million for the hydrothermal recycling of Li-ion batteries through the ARRA program. But the associated cost savings are unlikely to make up the needed $1,000 plus. Induction motors. The project has demonstrated a novel composite microstructure to minimize eddy current losses. Inside of each transit car there are also subsystems, such as the car climate control system. For example, comparing an ICE with an efficiency of 40 percent to a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV)1 with an overall power-train efficiency of 65 percent results in a work capacity of the liquid-fueled ICE vehicle that is approximately. The need will be reduced, however, as the OEMs move closer to a commercialization phase and as the companies lock in designs for their engineering solutions. There appears to be relatively little work in the Partnership on battery charging. There are. When the vehicle begins to roll from rest, highest amount of torque is required which can be obtained with the help of a set of reduction gear. If the price of oil doubles, for example, the incentive to use carbon fibers in cars will increase because of the reduction in weight, but the cost of the polyolefin and therefore the carbon fiber will also increase. Marketed under the Parlex brand, Johnson Electric custom engineers LED based day running lights, rear combination lights and turn indicators … Furthermore, such component costs are not benefiting from established volume manufacturing operations at this time. Recommendation 3-21. These increased efforts will require increased funding for high-energy batteries and include leveraging all other efforts on electrochemistry and energy storage materials efforts within the DOE and the larger electrochemistry community. The Hydrogen Sorption COE has investigated 160 materials, and 35 percent are still in its inventory. Although less efficient than motors currently used in. Progress in other MEA areas has been mixed. burning fuel in the engine. Newer, lower-cost membrane development activities have been funded in recent years, and although the results of such. But given time and care it's possible -- the build just has to be taken one step at a time. Such support has been available through the open solicitation process for nearly 8 years under this current program (FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership) and a number of years prior in forerunner efforts such as the Partnership for the Next Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Recommendation 3-12. In spark ignition engines, this system also takes care of maintaining the spark and its timing. At a production of 500,000 annual units, the projected cost of the CEM is $293 and the cost of the controller is $303, with a total cost of $705 including assembly ($31) and a markup (15 percent for the CEM and 10 percent for the controller). The steering wheel rotational input is transferred down the steering column to the steering rack. The primary focus of the hydrogen storage program within the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership is to drive the development and demonstration of commercially viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. Consequently, it is important to maintain an active ICE and liquid fuels R&D program at all levels: industry, government laboratories, and academia, to expand the knowledge base to enable the development of technologies that can reduce the fuel consumption of transportation systems powered by ICEs. The prime mover for the propulsion system can be an engine, engine-driven generator, battery, or fuel cell, depending on the energy source. To maximize the gains in reducing fuel consumption and emissions, every aspect of the ICE power train and aftertreatment system must be optimized for every operating condition in the vehicle’s duty cycle. As European and Asian car manufacturers are announcing fuel cell vehicle commercialization target dates in the 2015 time frame, the role that the DOE plays in supporting the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership has become even more critical. In some instances the FY 2009 DOE budget reflects such recommendations, and the Partnership continued to be proactive in specific areas highlighted in the Phase 2 report. The limitation currently is cost. Onboard hydrogen storage is a key enabler for fuel-cell-powered vehicles. For example, the economics of recycling current Li-ion batteries is driven by the value of the cobalt contained in the battery (see, e.g., Anderson and Wade, 2001; Xu et al., 2008). As the vehicle mix within the on-the-road light-duty vehicle fleet is likely to change with the implementation of the new fuel economy standards, the advanced combustion and emission control technical team should. However, it is safe to say that even though the ICE will probably continue to have a large share of the market in the near term, some form of electric propulsion will likely be important in the future. The four COEs and the independent projects constitute the framework of the National Hydrogen Storage Project (see Box 3-1 and Figure 3-3). As discussed in further detail in the section below on “Electric Propulsion and Electrical Systems,” a series drivetrain powers the vehicle only by an electric motor using electricity from the battery. Milestones achieved since the Phase 2 NRC (2008) review include the following: The no-go decision made for vehicle hydrogen storage during the Phase 2 review was to discontinue applied R&D in pure, undoped, single-walled carbon nanotubes based on the fact that they were not able to meet the storage target of 6 wt% close to room temperature (2006). The Partnership addressed and concurred with the majority of the recommendations from the National Research Council’s Phase 2 review (DOE, 2009c; NRC, 2008). The general focus of the ACEC technical team’s work to achieve these targets continues to be lean-burn, direct-injection engines for vehicles fueled by diesel, gasoline, and biofuel or other alternative fuels, provided appropriate carbon emission mitigation is accomplished during their production. In BEV applications the vehicles run on electricity only, and thus high-energy-density batteries are required. The storage system costs are currently under review and will be changed at a future date. A DOE hydrogen program solicitation was issued for R&D for onboard vehicular hydrogen storage to support the COE or as independent projects (2008). The SOI gate driver was packaged for high-temperature application using solders. An automobile is the result of combined work of a number of systems. All modern vehicles rely heavily on electrical systems: be it running the engine, stability or cruise control or for lighting or air conditioning. Electrochemical energy storage technologies, batteries, and ultracapacitors are critical to the advancement of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership’s long-term goals. All of these will impact the ACEC program. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Both areas must remain the focus of the next round of solicitations. The FY 2009 funding level for the ACEC technical team was $25.4 million, with the requested level for FY 2010 being $27 million: the funds appropriated for FY 2010 were $34 million. The ambient systems (the current and simplest configuration) are targeted for the early introduction of the vehicle test fleets. Recommendation 3-10. Using the metrics of energy density (watt-hour per liter [Wh/L]) and specific energy (watt-hour per kilogram [Wh/kg]) of a vehicle’s complete fuel system highlights differences compared to conventional vehicles and the challenges of implementing alternative energy carriers to mobility systems. The chassis electrical system includes items such as headlights and driver accessories. Thus, it allows for flexibility and complexity in the power architecture design of the PHEV power train. Attached on each side of the rack are tie rods, which transfer the lateral motion of the rack to the steering arms - one mou… Bandivadekar, A., K. Bodek, L. Cheah, C. Evans, T. Groode, J. Heywood, E. Kasseris, M. Kromer, and M. Weiss. The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) project is producing a gate driver circuit to function at temperatures of 200°C (the project is ongoing at ORNL, and hardware exists). Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. Electric energy storage technologies have taken on an even greater importance in the past year due to the priorities of the new administration to “put 1 million plug-in hybrid cars—cars that can get up to 150 miles per gallon—on the road by 2015, cars that we will work to make sure are built here in America.”9 Furthermore, corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards were increased 40 percent to a national fuel economy standard of 35 miles per gallon (mpg) by 2020 (the Obama administration is targeting 2016 rather than 2020). Available on the Web at . The Chassis electrical system is comprised of all wiring and components except for those used by the engine, its ancillaries, and any engine control circuits. Further, as indicated in the preceding discussion on cost, system simplification is essential to cost reduction. Since the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Phase 2 review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership research program (NRC, 2008), changes in the country’s energy situation have occurred. See, for example, . None of the approaches (neither material-based nor physical storage) meets the combined targets. (Includes systems integration, prototype development, and systems analysis.). LFEE 2008-05 RP (July). Li-ion-powered BEVs began production in 2008 with the introduction of the Tesla Roadster powered by 6,800 cells sized for commercial electronics. The absorbed energy may be dissipated or converted to other form. This high pressure drives the piston out from the cylinder. Tags: Question 4 . The inverter changes a dc voltage that varies over narrow limits depending on power to an ac voltage of variable amplitude and frequency depending on motor speed and load; thus the two functions can be performed in two stages (making variable “chopped” dc voltage and then variable frequency) called modulator and inverter or in a single stage called a modulating inverter. The difficulties are compounded when the additional constraints associated with the Partnership are imposed: energy freedom, environmental freedom, and vehicle freedom. This reduced funding versus FY 2009 will meet existing grant commitments but provides no new starts. Loadings as low as 0.2 mg/cm2 have been reported in full-size modules, yet the direct impact on life is not clear at this time. The federal sponsorship of the hydrogen storage activities within the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership is an appropriate federal role. Available on the Web at . g For delivery the storage system, in the near term, the forecourt should be capable of delivering 10,000 psi (700 bar or ca. The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership focuses on electric drives that require a source of power that provides direct current at voltages of the order of 200 to 450 V. As shown in Figures 3-6 through 3-10, the vehicle power source is a fuel cell, an engine-driven generator, or a battery. Although the storage density is a critical parameter, all of the targets (weight, volume, efficiency, cost, packaging, safety, refueling ability and time, etc.) “Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles.” Presentation at the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 22. Furthermore, continued funding, especially of the high-risk concepts, will help facilitate next-generation technologies. More specifically, as stated in its recommendations, the committee believes that technologies needed for vehicle fuel cell systems—and not just fuel cells for stationary, auxiliary power, or portable applications—should be pursued. The projected cost is split nearly evenly between the stack and the BoP. The team has assumed that the base engine cost will be $20/kW, and the incremental cost for the technology improvements, which includes enhanced aftertreatment, will be $10/kW. “Announcement for H Prize.” Available on the Web at . Hydrogen storage capacity and cost are key parameters for initial materials evaluation. Yet, selected subcomponent suppliers have prototype manufacturing capability today that would meet near-term demand. Not only topic-specific understanding but also an understanding of the system-level interactions among the energy carrier, the energy release process, and the final emission cleanup are critical to continued improvement of the ICE power train.6 Continued close collaboration between the DOE and industry is necessary to allow newly developed technologies to transition into the industrial laboratories and to lead to the identification of new areas where enhanced understanding will be the most beneficial. Furthermore, fundamental research projects on electrochemical energy systems are funded by the BES. Since the success of HFCVs is not assured, this transition role could turn out in many cases to be a more permanent scenario. Automobile - Automobile - Transmission: The gasoline engine must be disconnected from the driving wheels when it is started and when idling. Budget information provided to the committee by Christy Cooper, DOE, January 13, 2010. The effort is composed of three subactivities: (1) Battery Technology Development is involved in battery system module development, including design and fabrication specifications, testing procedures, cost modeling and recycling studies, and technology assessment and the benchmark testing of various battery systems; (2) Applied Battery Research focuses primarily on improving the understanding of failure and life-limiting parameters, including safety and abuse tolerance, of the Li-ion system that currently is closest to meeting the technical goals; and (3) Long-Term Battery Research addresses the fundamental understanding of specific electrochemical systems for Li-ion batteries and the development of newer couples with a potential for higher power and energy density. The use of electric propulsion places increased emphasis on. These system targets are listed in the annex to this chapter. Telefunken has been identified as the fabrication shop. In making cost projections, the assumptions are many and in some cases are based on still-unproven laboratory-phase performance. During this period, multiyear development programs have resulted in awards in support of fuel cell R&D efforts. Recommendation 3-11. During this transition the dominant power plant for mobility systems will continue to be ICE vehicles fueled with a hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., gasoline, diesel fuel, or biofuel).3. The key issue is not improving their performance but getting the weight reductions needed at an acceptable cost. The hydrogen storage technical team and the DOE provide guidance for the work of the COEs. On this basis, liquid HC fuels are very effective energy carriers for mobility systems. In order to address the fuel storage needs of and to set priorities for fuel cell applications, the EERE plans to conduct a Request for Information (RFI) and a workshop during FY 2010. A single amount of $1 million will be awarded for the development of an onboard hydrogen storage material that meets or exceeds a set of performance targets specified in the competition announcement. This will change with Li-ion, the likely battery of choice in the future. Public acceptance will demand stringent health, environmental, and safety standards, especially since one of the main reasons for hybrid vehicles is environmental. Howell, D. 2009. Understanding how auto parts work together to form automotive systems allows drivers to confidently discuss automotive problems with their mechanics. More effective exhaust emission systems will have a double benefit. Areas have been identified for materials-based and physical/compressed storage-system cost reduction (TIAX LLC). Storage system must comply with CSA/NGV2 standards for vehicular tanks. Which event describes an output in a car's engineered subsystem? The linear displacement of the piston is converted to rotary motion with the help of a reciprocating motion mechanism. The Partnership should continue to focus on activities to reduce the cost, size, and losses in the power electronics and electrical machines. Larger-scale stack performance and on-road testing will help to validate the laboratory data and determine the ultimate value to the program. The two cases of high power-to-energy ratio and the high energy-to-power ratio battery characteristics for PHEV applications are listed in Table 3-5. System controllers need to control the vehicle in response to the driver’s commands. b Based on laboratory results from 3M and not full-size modules. A breakdown of how the FY 2009 funding was dispersed among different organizations and technologies is shown in Figure 3-1. The automobile has always been a harsh environment for electronic design and signal fidelity. Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and naval architecture, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software, and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. For gas priced at $2.50/gal, the annual fuel costs of $1,270 at 25 mpg would be reduced by $72.50 due to the weight reduction. The materials research funding should largely be redistributed to areas of higher potential payoff, such as high-energy batteries, fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and projects associated with infrastructure issues. Each system, though primarily independent, is influenced by the effect of other systems interacting with it. pressing down on the car's brake. SiC Devices. Complete laboratory-scale prototype system and evaluation against 2015 targets is scheduled for the fourth quarter of 2015. This tool is critical to integrating the new understanding of combustion and emission processes into a framework that allows it to be used to guide further research and identify fuel and engine operating conditions that will maximize reductions in fuel consumption over the entire operating range of the engine. There are various types of suspension systems in wide use in the automobile industry. Due to its high band gap and operating temperatures that exceed 250°C, silicon carbide (SiC) offers power inverter efficiencies over silicon. Estimates that up to 30 percent of U.S. liquid HC energy could be displaced by domestically produced biofuels have appeared in the literature.4 A genetically modified alga has attracted attention as a way to enhance the recycling of power plant’s CO2 emissions into a viable transportation fuel.5 The prospect of enhanced electric storage capacity has spurred the interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). In contrast to conventional vehicles or HEVs, PHEVs are able to drive on electric power alone for some distance, depending on the electric battery storage capacity. The Partnership should conduct a study to determine the cost of recycling batteries and the potential of savings from recycled materials. The cost of the dielectric material is low (close to that for polypropylene) for laboratory-scale quantities, and the committee expects that it would be even less expensive for large-quantity production. Even with such data, complicating the comprehensive understanding of the status of the fuel cell technology is the fact that the OEMs have their own respective (proprietary) fuel cell activities and engineering approaches, which may or may not be synchronized with the DOE-funded development efforts. Security subsystems are not specific to automotive. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? The FY 2009 budget appropriation allowed the program to be supported at a high level for continuing and new R&D activities. The revised targets are as follows: By 2010, develop and verify onboard hydrogen storage systems achieving (old targets) 2 kWh/kg (6 weight percent [wt%]), 1.5 kWh/L, and $4/kWh; (new targets) 1.5 kWh/kg (4.5 wt%), 0.9 kWh/L (28 g/L). The presence of permanent magnets may result in a catastrophic failure if, during driving, there is a short circuit of the winding or a failure of insulation. (Tesla is an expensive sports car that does not meet the target goals of the Partnership.) Department of Energy (DOE). The number of models available has also increased from 5 in 2004 to 18 in 2008. The Multiyear Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan was developed for the years 2005-2015 (2007). The punching and assembly of laminations is expensive, and for years the “holy grail” of soft magnetic materials has been to discover a new material that has both high electrical resistivity and high permeability at the flux density levels needed. But mass is not the same as size, and with efficient designs, low-mass cars can be made safe by improving crash-management design and reducing the frequency of accidents through improved accident-avoidance systems in vehicles and on highways. Selection criteria were established based on the potential to meet 2010 technical targets. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The attainment of, or progress toward, 2010 targets, as shown in Table 3-1 for selected fuel cell stack targets, can also be considered as a measure of progress of the program. Available on the Web at . The team includes members McCleer Power and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Intematix Corporation, Millennium Cell, Northern Arizona University, Pennsylvania State University, Rohm and Haas, Inc., University of Alabama, University of California-Davis, University of Missouri, University of Pennsylvania, University of Washington, US Borax, Center of Excellence on Hydrogen Sorption, High surface area sorbents including metal-carbon hybrids, boron-carbon materials, metal organic frameworks, nanohorns and fibers, conducting and porous polymers; modeling and mechanistic understanding, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., California Institute of Technology, Duke University, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, Rice University, University of Michigan, University of North Carolina, University of Pennsylvania, Light-weight complex hydrides, destabilized binary hydrides, intermetallic hydrides, modified lithium amides, and other advanced onboard reversible hydrides, Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore, Brookhaven National Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, General Electric, HRL Laboratories, Intematix Corporation, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory, Stanford University, University of Hawaii, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of Nevada-Reno, University of Pittsburgh/Carnegie Mellon University, University of Utah, Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, Energy challenges associated with developing low-pressure material-based hydrogen storage systems for enabling onboard storage of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles and for achieving customer expected driving range and performance. Target dates have been appropriately set for technology down-select decisions: A complete analysis of onboard storage options for 2010 and 2015 targets was scheduled for 2009 as well as a decision point on advanced carbon-based materials and a down-select for chemical hydrogen storage approaches for the 2010 targets. Here, the fuel system includes all aspects of carrying the energy on the vehicle—that is, the fuel tank or containment system (battery pack, or hydride material) and supporting structures are included in this weight and volume assessment. Materials-based storage at the level required to meet all program targets is considered theoretically achievable, yet no material has been identified that meets all of the targets. Battery safety thus in large measure is a system characteristic that needs to be managed carefully. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Generally, increasing the energy density will decrease the power density, whereas increasing the power density means using thinner electrodes, which will increase cost, reduce life, and may impact safety. ANL (Argonne National Laboratory). Conventional vehicles have a large number of electrical systems to control emissions, passenger comfort, and safety that are not discussed here. 35 MPa and 70 MPa) compressed hydrogen. Pending fuel economy standards will impact the vehicle mix as the on-the-road light-duty vehicle fleet turns over. In order to achieve a good conformity with field test, sophisticated vehicle models are needed. Recommendation 3-23. In order to accelerate the manufacture and deployment of electric vehicles, batteries, and related power components here in America and to create thousands of jobs in these technologies, 48 new advanced battery and electric drive projects of $2.4 billion were funded under the ARRA. The following activities are being undertaken: ANL: This activity uses metal (copper or nickel) foil coated with thin film Pb-La-Zr-Ti-oxide (PLZT) dielectrics. In the opinion of the committee, this is the kind of stretch technology that is needed to reduce component size and material cost.
2020 automobile systems and subsystems